Rosendal, G. Kristin. (1995). The Politics of Patent Legislation in Biotechnology: An International View. In Rafaat El-Gewely (Ed.), Biotechnology Annual Review (p. 453-476). Amsterdam: Elsevier. 

The realization of the economic value of the genetic resources has prompted an international debate about property rights to genetic resources. The international debate pertaining to patenting of genetic material is the main theme of this chapter. As a backdrop for the international debate, the chapter starts out with a summary of the main events and arguments in the expanding scope of patent legislation in biotechnological inventions. Summing up, the new biotechnologies represent a tool which meets the legal requirements for patenting biological material. From the industry's point of view, biotechnology also necessitates patenting. On the negative side, defending a patent is often a long and costly business, and the trend is that patenting will mainly benefit the bigger and stronger companies and thus weaken public control over the rapid developments in biotechnology. A central argument in the chapter is that without sophisticated biotechnological tools, trained scientists, and adequate infrastructure, patenting is, as yet, hardly a viable solution for the majority of developing countries. Generich developing countries fear that developments in patent legislation will pave the way for increased Northern control over Third World natural resources. The International Convention on Biological Diversity goes some way in making amends to this situation, but the gene-poor, least developed countries may still have reason to fear that they will lose access to breeding material. In a long-term perspective, the implications may be detrimental for resource conservation in developing countries. In conclusion, the patent question seems to remain unresolved and may still be one of the most likely stumbling blocks for future ratifications and implementation of the Biodiversity Convention.