This book contains the proceedings of the fifth meeting in the Dialogue series, which was held at Madras 28-31 January 1994. Both the presentations and the discussions from the meeting have been included in the book. The purpose of the dialogue was to develop practical methods of recognizing and rewarding tribal and rural men and women for their contributions to the conservation and development of plant genetic resources. There was agreement among the participants that their contributions deserve due recognition. In this book many aspects of the issue of Farmers' Rights are discussed, and draft legislation is suggested that is meant to contain transparent and implementable procedures for recognizing Farmers' Rights and rewarding farmers. The book particularly deals with the situation in India and among the issues discussed are an IPR system for landraces, plant breeders' rights, conservation and use of genetic resources, sui generis systems, and the drafting of legislation addressing the issue of plant breeders' rights and Farmers' Rights.